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The Search For Antimicrobial Compounds From Marine Invertebrate-Associated Bacteria In Indonesian Coral Reef Ecosystems : Presentasi RUTI III



The search for antimicrobial compounds from marine invertebrate-associated bacteria In Indonesian coral reef ecosystems

Ocky Karna Radjasa and Michael J (Risk ocky_radjasa@yahoo.com, riskmj@mcmaster.ca )

Abstract
Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic country with approximately 17,508 islands containing valuable coastal and marine resources such as coral reefs. Marine organisms, in particular marine invertebrates from coral reef ecosystems have become sources of great interest to natural product chemistry, since they produce metabolites with different biological activities.

Marine invertebrates, which are plentiful in the Indo-Pacific regions including Indonesia, are rich in secondary metabolites and are becoming targets of continuing search for bioactive compounds. However, the problem of supply has hampered the development of these secondary metabolites produced by marine invertebrates. On the contrary, the metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms.

The project is aimed at isolating the microorganisms associated with reefs invertebrates from geographically different sites; screening of secondary metabolite producing¬microorganisms by using biological and molecular approach, PCR-NRPS (Non¬ribosomal Peptide synthetases) and PKS (Polyketide synthases) to increase the efficiency of screening; identifying prospective microorganisms; cloning and sequencing of the gene fragments of PKS and NRPS; bioassay-guided purification as well as dissemination of project results.

The results showed that marine microorganisms isolated from reef's invertebrates such as sponges, softcorals, and corals indeed inhibited the growth of various indicator microorganisms for example pathogenic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus equi subsp epidemicus, S. aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio groups as well as marine biofilm¬forming bacteria.

Molecular based-approaches such PCR-based screening by using degenerated primers targeting specific gene fragments that are essential in the biosynthesis of particular products interest (Non ribosomal peptide synthetases/NRPS and Polyjetide synthases/PKS) showed promising results in which many active strains were capable of amplifying either PKS or NRPS primers. Following cloning and sequencing, the deduced sequences were belonging to the PKS and NRPS confirming the efficiency of the methods for screening of secondary metabolite-producing marine microorganisms associated with reef's invertebrates.
Bioassay-guided purification is still underway as an effort to obtain the pure compounds and to elucidate the structure of promising compounds produced by reef's microorganisms.

Dissemination of project results was carried out through international seminars/symposium, publications in the peer-reviewed international journals as well as nationally accredited journals. The project has also involved several students in the undergraduate and graduate levels.

Entry oleh Ahmad


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